صفحات اجتماعی ندای مهر

Attributional Style Assessment Test

IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY
OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

College of Liberal Arts and Sciences
Department of Psychology

W112 Lagomarcino Hall
Ames‚ IA 50011-3180
E-mail: caa@iastate.edu
Phone: (515) 294-1742
FAX: (515) 294-6424
December 7‚ 1999
Dear colleague:

Attached are copies of the five versions of the Attributional Style Assessment Test my colleagues and Ihave used in our research. Three of the versions use a forced choice approach (ASAT I & II‚ and a Chinese version of ASAT I). Two use a dimensional approach (ASAT III & IV). Both approaches have proven useful in our research for addressing slightly different research questions. Three of the versions contain 20 items (ASAT I‚ III‚ and the Chinese version). The other two contain 36 items (ASAT II & IV).

Note that the dimensional versions (III & IV) assess 6 dimensions-‎-Changeability‚ Locus‚Globality‚ Stability‚ Intentionality‚ and Controllability. In our more recent work we have dr‎opped changeability and intentionality. Both tend to correlate very highly with controllability‚ and thus may not add much to the understanding of attributional style. However‚ there may be research questions for which these dimensions will be extremely important. I therefore encourage you to use whatever approach seems most appropriate for your research questions.

The breakdown of the 4 versions is as follows:

20 - Item Forced Choice Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT - I & the Chinese version)

The six choices for each item are presented in the same order‚ as follows:

a. strategy
b. ability
c. effort

d. personality traits

e. mood

f. circumstances

The classification of these 20 items‚ by type‚ is as follows:
Interpersonal failure -‎- 5‚ 6‚ 8‚ 12‚ 15
Interpersonal success -‎- 1‚ 2‚ 11‚ 16‚ 19
Noninterpersonal failure -‎- 3‚ 10‚ 13‚ 18‚ 20
Noninterpersonal success -‎- 4‚ 7‚ 9‚ 14‚ 17

36 - Item Forced Choice Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-II)

The three choices (strategy‚ ability‚ effort) were randomly ordered for each item.

Order 1 (strategy‚ effort‚ ability): 1‚ 12‚ 16‚ 23‚ 25‚ 36

Order 2 (ability‚ strategy‚ effort): 2‚ 5‚ 9‚ 20‚ 29‚ 31

Order 3 (strategy‚ ability‚ effort): 3‚ 13‚ 14‚ 26‚ 33‚ 34

Order 4 (effort‚ ability‚ strategy): 4‚ 6‚ 8‚ 15‚ 19‚ 21‚ 28‚ 30

Order 5 (ability‚ effort strategy): 7‚ 11‚ 18‚ 24‚ 27‚ 32

Order 6 (effort‚ strategy‚ ability): 10‚ 17‚ 22‚ 35

The classification of these 36 items‚ by type‚ is as follows:

Interpersonal failure: 1‚ 2‚ 6‚ 14‚ 21‚ 25‚ 28‚ 32‚ 36

Interpersonal success: 4‚ 8‚ 12‚ 16‚ 18‚ 20‚ 23‚ 26‚ 30

Noninterpersonal failure: 3‚ 7‚ 9‚ 10‚ 19‚ 22‚ 27‚ 29‚ 33

Noninterpersonal success: 5‚ 11‚ 13‚ 15‚ 17‚ 24‚ 31‚ 34‚ 35

20 - Item Dimensional Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-III)

The 6 dimensions are rated by subjects in the same order.

The classification of these 20 items‚ by type‚ is as follows:

Interpersonal failure -‎- 1‚ 3‚ 7‚ 17‚ 20

Interpersonal success -‎- 5‚ 10‚ 12‚ 14‚ 16

Noninterpersonal failure -‎- 2‚ 11‚ 13‚ 15‚ 18

Noninterpersonal success -‎- 4‚ 6‚ 8‚ 9‚ 19

36 - Item Dimensional Attributional Style Assessment Test (ASAT-IV)

The 6 dimensions are rated by subjects in the same order.

The classification of these 36 items‚ by type‚ is as follows:

Interpersonal failure: 1‚ 2‚ 6‚ 14‚ 21‚ 25‚ 28‚ 32‚ 36

Interpersonal success: 4‚ 8‚ 12‚ 16‚ 18‚ 20‚ 23‚ 26‚ 30

Noninterpersonal failure: 3‚ 7‚ 9‚ 10‚ 19‚ 22‚ 27‚ 29‚ 33

Noninterpersonal success: 5‚ 11‚ 13‚ 15‚ 17‚ 24‚ 31‚ 34‚ 35

When using these measures of attributional style‚ it is important to keep in mind that the reliabilities of the measures tend to be in the range of .4 to .7. Higher reliabilities may sometimes be obtained by ignoring the interpersonal/noninterpersonal distinction‚ thus doubling the number of items per scale. Of course‚ if a major point of your research is to test for differences between attributional styles assessed for interpersonal versus noninterpersonal situations (as is true of much of our research) then one cannot collapse in this fashion.

A variety of composite scores may be obtained from the forced choice as well as the dimensional approaches. Such scores are appropriate as long as there is good theoretical reason to cr‎eate them‚ and as long as reliabilities are assessed appropriately. One common but questionable practice has been to collapse across dimensions (such as stability‚ locus‚ and globality) to cr‎eate a scale score (which is appropriate) but to compute reliabilities as if each dimension rating represents an independent item. With 5 hypothetical situations‚ this procedure treats the data as if there were 15 items going into the scale score. A better approach is to first analyze the data to see which dimensions may be appropriately collapsed‚ then to compute 1collapsed score for each hypothetical situation‚ then to perform the reliability analysis on the collapsed scores across hypothetical situation items.

Because reliabilities in all attributional style measures tend to be of only moderate size‚ a large sample size is usually needed to detect relations with other measures. About 150 to 250 subjects seems to work well‚ but of course it will also depend on the subject population‚ the research questions being investigated‚ the true effect size‚ and on the other measures you use.

I retain the copyright to these scales. You are welcome to use these scales for research purposes without seeking permission from me. Also‚ I encourage you to make whatever modifications seem necessary for your particular research needs. I would appreciate it if you would keep me informed of your work in this area by sending preprints or reprints.

Sincerely‚
Craig A. Anderson‚ Ph.D.
Professor & Chair

Major references relevant to the ASAT

Horowitz‚ L.M.‚ French‚ R.‚ & Anderson‚ C.A. (1982). The prototype of loneliness. In L.A.

Peplau & D. Perlman (Eds.)‚ Loneliness: A Sourcebook of Current Theory‚ Research‚ and

Therapy (pp. 183-205). New York: Wiley-Interscience.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ Horowitz‚ L.M.‚ & French‚ R. (1983). Attributional style of lonely and

depressed people. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 45‚ 127-136.

Anderson‚ C.A. (1983). Motivational and performance deficits in interpersonal settings: The

effect of attributional style. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 45‚ 1136-1147.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ & Arnoult‚ L.H. (1985). Attributional style and everyday problems in living:

Depression‚ loneliness‚ and shyness. Social Cognition‚ 3‚ 16-35.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ & Arnoult‚ L.H. (1985). Attributional models of depression‚ loneliness‚ and

shyness. In J. Harvey & G. Weary (Eds.)‚ Attribution: Basic Issues and Applications (pp.

235-279). New York: Academic Press.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ Jennings‚ D.L.‚ & Arnoult‚ L.H. (1988). Validity and utility of the attributional style construct at a moderate level of specificity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 55‚ 979-990.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ & Riger‚ A.L. (1991). A controllability attributional model of problems in

living: Dimensional and situational interactions in the prediction of depression and

loneliness. Social Cognition‚ 9‚ 149-181.

Anderson‚ C.A.‚ Miller‚ R.S.‚ Riger‚ A.L.‚ Dill‚ J.C.‚ & Sedikides‚ C. (1994). Behavioral and

ch‎aracterological attributional styles as predictors of depression and loneliness: Review‚

refinement‚ and test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 66‚ 549-558.

Anderson‚ C.A. (1999). Attributional style‚ depression‚ and loneliness: A cross-cultural

comparison of American and Chinese students. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin‚ 25‚ 482-499.

Reasons for Success and Failure (ASAT-‎-I)

This questionnaire presents some common situations with different possible explanations for the outcome (success and failure) of each situation. Imagine yourself in each situation‚ and consider each possible reason for the situation turning out as it did. Then circle the letter that corresponds to the one reason or explanation that would most likely account for the outcome if it happened to you. There is no right or wrong answer‚ of course‚ so do not spend a lot of time making your judgments. Simply choose the reason that would best explain the outcome if it actually happened to you.

1. You have just attended a party for new students and made some new friends.

a. I used the right strategy to meet new people.

b. I am good at meeting people at parties.

c. I tried very hard to meet new people.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for meeting new people.

e. I was in the right mood for meeting new people.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

2. You have just succeeded at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much.

a. I used the right strategy in coordinating the outing.

b. I am good at coordinating outings.

c. I tried very hard to coordinate the outing.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for coordinating outings.

e. I was in the right mood for coordinating the outing.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

3. You have just failed the midterm test in a class.

a. I did not use the right strategy for the test.

b. I am not good in that particular subject area.

c. I did not try very hard to do well on the test.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary to do well on tests.

e. I was not in the right mood to take the test.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

4. You have just won a competitive match in a sporting event.

a. I used the right strategy to win the match.

b. I am good at this sport.

c. I tried very hard to win the match.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for this sport.

e. I was in the right mood for the match.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

5. You find yourself alone on almost every Saturday night and regret that you had not arranged to do something with a friend.

a. I did not use the right strategy in arranging social activities.

b. I am not good at arranging social activities.

c. I did not try very hard to arrange social activities.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for arranging social activities.

e. I was not in the right mood for arranging social activities.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

6. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Red Cross‚ you failed to persuade very many people to donate blood.

a. I did not use the right strategy to persuade people.

b. I am not good at persuading people.

c. I did not try very hard to persuade people.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for persuading people.

e. I was not in the right mood for persuading people.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

7. You have just succeeded at completing the crossword puzzle in the daily paper.

a. I used the right strategy to complete the puzzle.

b. I am good at crossword puzzles.

c. I tried very hard to complete the puzzle.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for completing crossword puzzles.

e. I was in the right mood for a crossword puzzle.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

8. You were recently unsuccessful at trying to cheer up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

a. I did not use the right strategy to cheer him/her up.

b. I am not good at cheering up other people.

c. I did not try very hard to cheer him/her up.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for cheering people up.

e. I was not in the right mood to cheer him/her up.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

9. You have succeeded in selling your best photographs to a national magazine.

a. I used the right strategy in taking the photographs.

b. I am good at photography.

c. I tried very hard to take good photographs.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for taking good photographs.

e. I was in the right mood for taking good photographs.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

10. You have just lost a game of Scrabble (the word game).

a. I did not use the right strategy in playing the game.

b. I am not good at playing games like Scrabble.

c. I did not try very hard to play the game well.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for playing word games.

e. I was not in the right mood for playing the game.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

11. You discover that in the recent past you have enjoyed some social activity almost every Saturday night.

a. I used the right strategy in arranging social activities.

b. I am good at arranging social activities.

c. I tried very hard to arrange social activities.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for arranging social activities.

e. I was in the right mood for arranging social activities.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

12. You have just attended a party for new students and failed to make any new friends.

a. I did not use the right strategy to meet new people.

b. I am not good at meeting people at parties.

c. I did not try very hard to meet new people.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for meeting new people.

e. I was not in the right mood for meeting new people.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

13. You have lost a competitive match in a sporting event.

a. I did not use the right strategy for winning the match.

b. I am not good at this sport.

c. I did not try very hard to win the match.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for this sport.

e. I was not in the right mood for the match.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

14. You have just received a high score on the midterm test in a class.

a. I used the right strategy for the test.

b. I am good in that particular subject area.

c. I tried very hard to to do well on the test.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for doing well on tests.

e. I was in the right mood for taking the test.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

15. You have just failed at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much.

a. I did not use the right strategy in coordinating the outing.

b. I am not good at coordinating outings.

c. I did not try very hard to coordinate the outing.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for coordinating outings.

e. I was not in the right mood for coordinating the outing.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

16. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Red Cross you succeeded at persuading a lot of people to donate blood.

a. I used the right strategy to persuade people.

b. I am good at persuading people.

c. I tried very hard to persuade people.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for persuading people.

e. I was in the right mood for persuading people.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

17. You have just won a game of Scrabble (the word game).

a. I used the right strategy in playing the game.

b. I am good at playing games like Scrabble.

c. I tried very hard to play the game well.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for playing word games.

e. I was in the right mood for playing the game.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

18. You have failed to complete the crossword puzzle in the daily paper.

a. I did not use the right strategy to complete the puzzle.

b. I am not good at crossword puzzles.

c. I did not try very hard to complete the puzzle.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for completing crossword puzzles.

e. I was not in the right mood to complete the puzzle.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

19. You were recently successful at cheering up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

a. I used the right strategy to cheer him/her up.

b. I am good at cheering other people up.

c. I tried very hard to cheer him/her up.

d. I have the personality traits necessary for cheering people up.

e. I was in the right mood to cheer him/her up.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

20. You have failed to sell you best photographs to a national magazine.

a. I did not use the right strategy in taking the photographs.

b. I am not good at photography.

c. I did not try very hard to take good photographs.

d. I do not have the personality traits necessary for taking good photographs.

e. I was not in the right mood for taking good photographs.

f. Other circumstances (people‚ situations‚ etc.) produced this outcome.

Reasons for Success and Failure (ASAT-‎-III)

The items on the following pages present specific situations and outcomes that might happen to anyone. For each item‚ imagine yourself in that situation‚ then write down the one major cause of that outcome. That is‚ think of the most likely cause of the outcome if you were in the situation and try to express the reason for the outcome in a single sentence. Then‚ rate the cause on each of the six scales provided. Definitions of the rating scales are listed below.

Locus: The degree to which the cause is due to something about you‚ rather than to other people or circumstances.

Globality: The degree to which the cause is relevant to many different situations‚ rather than being specific to a few

situations.

Stability: The degree to which the cause can be expected to be present at the same level every time the same situation

arises.
Intentionality: The degree to which the cause reflects an intention.

Controllability: The degree to which the cause is a factor that you have control over.

Use the following scales in determining your rating of the various causes.

________________________________________________________________________________
Outside                                                                  Inside

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Locus

the person                                                             the person

________________________________________________________________________________
Specific to a                                           Global‚ relevant

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Globality

few situations                                       to many situations

________________________________________________________________________________
Not at all                                                               Very

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Stability

Stable                                                                     stable
________________________________________________________________________________
Not at all                                                               Very

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Controllability

controllable                                                           controllable
________________________________________________________________________________
Remember‚ for each of the 20 situations you should:
1) imagine yourself in that situation
2) write down the one major cause of that outcome

3) rate the cause by writing the number of your rating (from the scales above) on the blank beside each scale.

1. You have just failed at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much.

cause:___________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

2. You have just lost a competitive match in your favorite sport.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

3. You have just attended a party for new students and did not make any new friends.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

4. You have succeeded in selling your best photographs to a national magazine.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

5. You find yourself enjoying some social activity most every Saturday night.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

6. You have just won a game of Scrabble (the word game).

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

7. You were recently unsuccessful at trying to cheer up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

8. You have just succeeded at completing the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

9. You have just received a high score on the midterm test in a class.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

10. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Red Cross you succeeded at persuading a lot of people to

donate blood.
cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

11. You have failed to complete the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

12. You have just succeeded at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

13. You have just failed the midterm test in a class.

cause:________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

14. You were recently successful at cheering up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

15. You have failed to sell your best photographs to a national magazine.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

16. You have just attended a party for new students and made some new friends.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

17. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Red Cross you failed to persuade very many people to donate blood.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

18. You have just lost a game of Scrabble (the word game).

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

19. You have just won a competitive match in your favorite sport.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

20. You find yourself alone on a Saturday night and regret that you had not arranged to do something with a friend.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____      locus ____            stability ____       controllability ____

Reasons for Success and Failure (ASAT-‎-II)

This questionnaire presents some common situations with different possible explanations for the outcome (success or failure) of each situation. Imagine yourself in each situation‚ and consider each possible reason for the situation or explanation that would most likely account for the outcome if it happened to you. There is no right or wrong answer‚ of course‚ so do not spend a lot of time making up your judgments. Simply choose the reason that would best explain the outcome if it actually happened to you.

1. A child that you have been tutoring in reading has failed to improve as much as expected. Which reason best accounts for the child's failure to improve?

A. I did not use the best teaching technique for that child.

B. I did not work hard enough with the child.

C. I am not very good at teaching reading skills.

2. You have just failed at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much. Which reason best accounts for this outcome?

A. I am not very good at arranging social events.

B. I did not stress the importance of everyone pitching in.

C. I did not try hard enough to coordinate everyone involved.

3. You have lost a competitive match in your favorite sport. Which reason best accounts for this loss?

A. I used the wrong strategy for this opponent.

B. I am not as good at this sport as my opponent.

C. I did not put enough effort into the match to win.

4. Things have been working out well between you and your roommate. Which reason best accounts for this outcome?

A. I work very hard at getting along with my roommate.

B. I am good at getting along with roommates.

C. I take a casual approach to minor problems in living arrangements.

5. Your short story has been accepted for publication by a national magazine. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I am a good writer of short stories.

B. I used the appropriate style of writing for the magazine.

C. I work very hard in writing the story.

6. You have just attended a party for new students and did not make any new friends. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I did not try have enough to meet new people.

B. I am not good at meeting new people at parties.

C. I used the wrong approach in trying to meet new people.

7. In a memory experiment‚ where your task was to memorize pairs of words‚ you did not memorize enough of the pairs to be included in a follow-up study. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I am not good at memorization tasks.

B. I did not try very hard to memorize the word pairs.

C. I used the wrong memorization technique for this kind of memory task.

8. You went out on a blind date and enjoyed yourself. Which reason best accounts for this?

A. I tried to relax and enjoy myself.

B. I am good at relaxing and enjoying myself in this kind of a situation.

C. I kept the conversation going and found myself relaxing and enjoying myself.

9. In an attempt to save money for a large‚ special purchase‚ you have set a carefully planned budget. Month after month you find you have gone over your budget. Which reason best accounts for this overspending?

A. I just cannot stay within tight spending limits.

B. I did not use the right techniques to prevent wasteful spending.

C. I did not try hard enough to stay within my budget.

10. Over vacation you have gained a few pounds‚ and set a goal of losing them my mid-quarter. At mid-quarter the extra weight is still with you. Which reason best accounts for this situation?

A. I did not try hard enough to lose the weight.

B. I did not use the right weight reduction method.

C. I am just not good at controlling my weight.

11. You have succeeded in selling your best photographs to a national magazine. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I am good at presenting my work to sell.

B. I put a lot of effort into selling my pictures.

C. I used the right selling approach.

12. You find yourself enjoying some social activity most every Saturday night. Which reason best accounts for this situation?

A. I always contact my friends early in the week to arrange an activity.

B. I put a lot of effort into arranging social activities.

C. I am good at planning social activities.

13. You have just won a game of Scrabble (the word game). Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I used the right strategy in trying to win.

B. I am good at word games like Scrabble.

C. I put a lot of effort into trying to win.

14. You were recently unsuccessful at trying to cheer up you roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem. Which reason best accounts for your failure at cheering your roommate up?

A. I used the wrong approach to cheer him/her up.

B. I am not good at cheering up others.

C. I did not really try very hard to cheer him/her up.

15. You have just succeeded at completing the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I put a lot of effort into completing the puzzle.

B. I am good at crossword puzzles.

C. I used the right approach to solving the puzzle.

16. You have just succeeded at resolving an argument with a close friend. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I used a conciliatory approach and it worked.

B. I put a lot of effort into resolving this argument.

C. I am good at resolving such arguments.

17. You have just received a high score on the midterm test in a class. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I worked very hard in the class.

B. I used the best study technique for the test.

C. I am very good in that particular subject area.

18. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Lung Association you succeeded at persuading a lot of people to donate money. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I am a persuasive person.

B. I put a lot of effort into persuading people to donate.

C. I used the right persuasion technique.

19. You have failed to complete the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I did not try very hard to complete the puzzle.

B. I am not very good at crossword puzzles.

C. I did not use the right approach to solving the crossword puzzle.

20. You have just succeeded at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much. Which reason best accounts for this outcome?

A. I am good at arranging social events.

B. I stressed the importance of everyone pitching in.

C. I put a lot of effort into coordinating everyone involved.

21. You have changed dorms because things had not worked out well between you and your roommate. Which reason best accounts for this outcome?

A. I did not try very hard to get along with my roommate.

B. I just could not get along with my roommate.

C. I took too serious an approach to minor problems in our living arrangements.

22. You have just failed the midterm test in a class. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I did not work hard enough in the class.

B. I did not use the best study technique for the test.

C. I do not have much ability in the particular subject area.

23. A child that you have been tutoring in reading has improved more that expected. Which reason best accounts for the child's reading improvement?

A. I used the best teaching technique for that child.

B. I worked very hard with the child.

C. I am good at teaching reading skills.

24. In a memory experiment‚ where your task was to memorize pairs of words‚ you memorized enough of the pairs to be included in the follow-up study. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I am good at memorization tasks.

B. I put a lot of effort into memorizing the word pairs.

C. I used the right memorization technique for this kind of memory task.

25. You have just failed to resolve an argument with a close friend. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I was too argumentative and not conciliatory enough.

B. I did not try very hard to resolve the argument.

C. I am not good at resolving such arguments.

26. You were recently successful at cheering up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I used the right approach to cheer him/her up.

B. I am good at cheering up others.

C. I tried very hard to cheer him/her up.

27. You have failed to sell you best photographs to a national magazine. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I am not very good at presenting my work to sell.

B. I did not try hard enough to sell my pictures.

C. I did not use the right selling approach.

28. You went out on a blind date and you were unable to relax and enjoy yourself. Which reason best accounts for your feeling of discomfort?

A. I did not really try to relax and enjoy myself.

B. I cannot relax and enjoy myself in this kind of situation.

C. I talked too much and did not give myself a chance to relax and enjoy myself.

29. Your short story has been rejected for publication by a national magazine. Which reason best accounts for this failure?

A. I am not a good enough writer of short stories.

B. I did not use the best style of writing for the magazine.

C. I did not work hard enough on the story.

30. You have just attended a party for new students and made some new friends. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I put a lot of effort into meeting new people.

B. I am good at meeting new people at parties.

C. I used the right approach in trying to meet and make new friends.

31. In an attempt to save money for a large‚ special purchase‚ you have set up a carefully planned budget. Month after month you find that you have stayed well within you budget. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I am good at staying within the set limits.

B. I used the right technique to prevent wasteful spending.

C. I put a lot of effort into staying within my budget.

32. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Lung Association‚ you failed to persuade very many people to donate money. Which reason best accounts for this lack of persuasiveness?

A. I am not a very persuasive person.

B. I did not try hard enough to persuade people to donate.

C. I used the wrong persuasion technique.

33. You have just lost a game of Scrabble (the word game). Which reason best accounts for this loss?

A. I did not use the right strategy in trying to win.

B. I am not very good at word games like Scrabble.

C. I did not try very hard to win.

34. You have just won a competitive match in your favorite sport. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I used the right strategy for this opponent.

B. I am better at this sport than my opponent.

C. I put a lot of effort into the match to win.

35. Over vacation you have gained a few pounds‚ and set a goal of losing them by mid-quarter. At mid-quarter the extra weight is all gone. Which reason best accounts for this success?

A. I tried very hard to lose the weight.

B. I used the right weight reduction method.

C. I am good at controlling my weight.

36. You find yourself alone on a Saturday night and regret that you had not arranged to do something with a friend. Which reason best accounts for this situation?

A. I did not contact my friends soon enough to arrange an activity.

B. I did not try very hard to make any arrangements.

C. I am not good at planning social activities.

Reasons for Success and Failure (ASAT-‎-IV)

The items on the following pages present specific situations and outcomes that might happen to anyone. For each item‚ imagine yourself in that situation‚ then write down the one major cause of that outcome. That is‚ think of the most likely cause of the outcome if you were in the situation and try to express the reason for the outcome in a single sentence. Then‚ rate the cause on each of the six scales provided. Definitions of the rating scales are listed below.

Locus: The degree to which the cause is due to something about you‚ rather than to other people or circumstances.

Globality: The degree to which the cause is relevant to many different situations‚ rather than being specific to a few

situations.

Stability: The degree to which the cause can be expected to be present at the same level every time the same

situation arises.

Controllability: The degree to which the cause is a factor that you have control over.

Use the following scales in determining your rating of the various causes.

________________________________________________________________________________
Outside                                                                  Inside

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Locus

the person                                                             the person

________________________________________________________________________________
Specific to a                                           Global‚ relevant

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Globality

few situations                                       to many situations

________________________________________________________________________________
Not at all                                                               Very

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Stability

Stable                                                                     stable
________________________________________________________________________________
Not at all                                                               Very

1 2       3       4       5       6       7       8       9   Controllability

controllable                                                           controllable
________________________________________________________________________________

Remember‚ for each of the 36 situations you should:

1) imagine yourself in that situation

2) write down the one major cause of that outcome

3) rate the cause by writing the number of your rating (from the scales above) on the blank beside each scale.

1. A child that you have been tutoring in reading has failed to improve as much as expected.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

2. You have just failed at coordinating an outing for a group of people you like very much.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

3. You have lost a competitive match in your favorite sport.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

4. Things have been working out well between you and your roommate.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

5. Your short story has been accepted for publication by a national magazine.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

6. You have just attended a party for new students and did not make any new friends.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

7. In a memory experiment‚ where your task was to memorize pairs of words‚ you did not memorize enough of the pairs

to be included in a follow-up study.
cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

8. You went out on a blind date and enjoyed yourself.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

9. In an attempt to same money for a large‚ special purchase‚ you have set a carefully planned budget. Month after

month you find you have gone over your budget.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

10. Over vacation you have gained a few pounds‚ and set a goal of losing them by mid-quarter. At mid-quarter the extra weight is still with you.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

11. You have succeeded in selling your best photographs to a national magazine.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

12. You find yourself enjoying some social activity most every Saturday night.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

13. You have just won a game of Scrabble (the word game).

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

14. You were recently unsuccessful at trying to cheer up you roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

15. You have just succeeded at completing the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

16. You have just succeeded at resolving an argument with a close friend.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

17. You have just received a high score on the midterm test in a class.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

18. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Lung Association you succeeded at persuading a lot of people to donate money.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

19. You have failed to complete the crossword puzzle in the daily newspaper.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

20. You have just succeeded at coordinating an outing for a group o people you like very much.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

21. You have changed dorms because things had not worked out well between you and your roommate.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

22. You have just failed the midterm test in a class.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

23. A child that you have been tutoring in reading has improved more than expected.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

24. In a memory experiment‚ where your task was to memorize pairs of words‚ you memorized enough of the pairs to be

included in the follow-up study.
cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

25. You have just failed to resolve an argument with a close friend.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

26. You were recently successful at cheering up your roommate who was ha‎ving a personal problem.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

27. You have failed to sell you best photographs to a national magazine.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

28. You went out on a blind date and you were unable to relax and enjoy yourself.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

29. Your short story has been rejected for publication by a national magazine.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

30. You have just attended a party for new students and made some new friends.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

31. In an attempt to save money for a large‚ special purchase‚ you have set up a carefully planned budget. Month after month you find that you have stayed well within your budget.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

32. While working as a volunteer caller for the American Lung Association‚ you failed to persuade very many people to donate money.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

33. You have just lost a game of Scrabble (the word game).

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

34. You have just won a competitive match in your favorite sport.

cause:____________________________________________________________________________________________

globality ____ locus ____ stability ____ controllability ____

 

 

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