Racial-Ethnic Identity and Racial-Ethnic Self

Racial-Ethnic Identity and Racial-Ethnic Self Schemas Daphna Oyserman‚ University of Michigan
SCALE
OPEN-ENDED (example is for African American‚ for other groups‚ use relevant terms)
People use different words to describe themselves‚ which of the following best describes you and people who look like you?
1. African American
2. Black
3. Mixed; parents are from different groups. If so‚ which: _______________and _____________
4. Other (write in ): _____________________.
When you think of yourself‚ you would most likely use the term _____________ (write in from the list above) to describe your racial or ethnic group.
Describe what it means to you to be an African American (or relevant group):
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
What are the everyday things you do that make you feel like an African American (or relevant group):
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Think about yourself as a male or female‚ what does it mean to be an African American male or female (or relevant group)? _______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Does it make a difference to others that you are an African American (or relevant group)? If so‚ can you tell me in what ways it makes a difference?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
How important is it to you to be an African American (or relevant group)?
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
FOR CONTENT CODING INFORMATION SEE:
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Gant‚ L. & Ager‚ J. (1995). A socially contextualized model of African American identity: Possible selves and school persistence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology‚ 69 1216-1232 (RACIAL-ETHNIC IDENTITY SUBSCALES)
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Kemmelmeier‚ M.‚ Fryberg‚ S.‚ Brosh‚ H.‚ & Hart-Johnson‚ T. (2003). Racial-ethnic self-schemas. Social Psychology Quarterly‚ 66‚ 333-347 (RACIAL-ETHNIC SCHEMAS).
CLOSE-ENDED RACIAL-ETHNIC IDENTITY
(example is for African American‚ for other groups‚ use relevant terms)
People have different opinions about what it means to be African American‚ I will read some statements to you. For each one‚ say how close it is to your opinion using the following scale‚ where 1= strongly disagree; 2=disagree; 3=neither agree nor disagree; 4= agree; 5=strongly agree.
ETH1) It is important to me to think of myself as an African American.
ETH2) I feel that I am part of the African American community
ETH3) I have a lot of pride in what members of the African American community have done and achieved.
ETH4) I feel close to others in the African American community.
ETH5) If I am successful it will help the African American community.
ETH6) It is important for my family and the African American community that I succeed in school.
ETH7) Some people will treat me differently because I am African American.
ETH8) As an African American‚ the way I look and speak influences what others expect of me.
ETH9)Things in the African American community are not as good as they could be because of lack of opportunity.
ETH10) It helps me when others in the African American community are successful.
ETH11)People might have negative ideas about my abilities because I am an African American.
ETH12) If I work hard and get good grades‚ other African Americans will respect me.
CODING
Embedded achievement (items 5‚ 6‚ 10‚ and 12)
Connectedness (items 1-4)
Awareness of racism (items 7‚ 8‚ 9‚ and 11)
RELIABILITY
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Brickman‚ D.‚ & M. Rhodes (2007). Racial-ethnic identity in adolescence: Content and consequences for African American and Latino youth. In. A. Fuligni (Ed.) Social Categories‚ Identities and Educational Participation. pp91-114. NY: Russell-Sage.
STABILITY
Altschul‚ I‚ Oyserman‚ D. & Bybee‚ D. (2006). Racial-ethnic identity in mid-adolescence: Content and change as predictors of grades. Child Development‚ 77‚ 1155-1169.
OTHER REFERENCES USING THE CLOSE-ENDED MEASURE
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Harrison‚ K.‚ & Bybee‚ D. (2001). Can racial identity be promotive of academic efficacy? International Journal of Behavioral Development‚ 25‚ 379-385.
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Bybee‚ D‚ & Terry‚ K. (2003). Gendered racial identity and involvement with school. Self and Identity‚ 2‚ 1-18
CLOSE-ENDED RACIAL-ETHNIC SELF-SCHEMAS
These are statements people sometimes make about being a member of their own racial or ethnic group. Answer for your own racial or ethnic group. There is no right or wrong answer; your opinion counts.
For each statement‚ circle the number closest to your opinion where 1= strongly disagree; 2=disagree; 3=neither agree nor disagree; 4= agree; 5=strongly agree.
RES1. As a member of my group it is important for me to share my culture and traditions with others.
1 2     3     4   5
RES2. I am proud to be a member of my group because we as a people have made many contributions to society.
1 2     3     4   5
RES3. I am proud to be a member of my group and to be part of this great country.
1 2     3     4   5
RES4. I am both part of my ethnic group and an American like everyone else.
1 2     3     4   5
RES5. We have to try harder than others because as a member of my ethnic group it is not easy to make it in America.
1 2     3     4   5
RES6. It is important for me to show others that when we set our mind to it‚ people in my group can do as well asanyone else.
1 2     3     4   5
RES7. It is important for me to represent my group in the best possible way because not everyone sees my group positively.
1 2     3     4   5
RES8. Even though others may not expect much of us‚ there are people in my group who have shown America that we can accomplish a lot.
1 2     3     4
RES9. It is better to be with my own group because sometimes other people don’t get how we are.
1 2     3     4
RES10. I like to be mostly with people from my group because we understand each other best.
1 2     3     4
RES11. There is not much good about American culture‚ so I try to stick mostly to my own culture.
RES12. It is hard to be American and true to my home culture.
1 2     3     4
RES13. Belonging to a particular group is not important to me; we are all human.
1 2     3     4
RES14. Everyone is an individual‚ so my ethnic group does not matter to me.
1 2     3     4
RES15. It does not mean anything to me to be part of an ethnic group.
1 2     3     4
RES16. I don’t feel part of any ethnic group.
1 2     3     4   5
CODING
Bridging – Dual RES subscale: RES1 – RES4
Bridging – Minority RES subscale: RES5 – RES8
In‐group RES subscale: RES9 – RES12
RES Aschematic subscale: RES13 – RES16
RELIABILITY and STABILITY
Oyserman‚ D.‚ Brickman‚ D.‚ & M. Rhodes (2007). Racial‐ethnic identity in adolescence: Content and consequences for African American and Latino youth. In. A. Fuligni (Ed.) Social Categories‚ Identities and Educational Participation. Pp91‐114. New York: Russell‐Sage.
Oyserman‚ D. (2008). Racial‐ethnic self‐schemas: Multi‐dimensional identity‐based motivation. Journal of Research on Personality‚ 42‚ 1186–1198.
Altschul‚ I.‚ Oyserman‚ D.‚ & Bybee‚ D. (2008). Racial‐ethnic self‐schemas and segmented
assimilation: Identity and the academic achievement of Hispanic youth. Social Psychology
Quarterly‚ 71‚ 302‐320.
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