Asian Values Scale (AVS)
Bryan S. K. Kim‚ Donald R. Atkinson‚ and Peggy Yang
Instructions: Use the scale below to indicate the extent to which you agree with the value expressed in each statement.
1 = Strongly disagree
2 = Moderately disagree
3 = Mildly disagree
4 = Neither Agree nor disagree
5 = Mildly agree
6 = Moderately agree
7 = Strongly agree
——1. Educational failure does not bring shame to the family.
——2. One should not deviate from familial and social norms.
——3. Children should not place their parents in retirement homes.
——4. One need not focus all energies on one’s studies.
——5. One should be discouraged from talking about one’s accomplishments.
——6. One should not be boastful.
——7. Younger persons should be able to confront their elders.
——8. When one receives a gift‚ one should reciprocate with a gift of equal or greater value.
——9. One need not follow one’s family’s and the society’s norms.
——10. One need not achieve academically in order to make one’s parents proud.
——11. One need not minimize or depreciate one’s own achievements.
——12. One should consider the needs of others before considering one’s own needs.
——13. Educational and career achievements need not be one’s top priority.
——14. One should think about one’s group before oneself.
——15. One should be able to question a person in an authority position.
——16. Modesty is an important quality for a person.
——17. One’s achievements should be viewed as family’s achievements.
——18. Elders may not have more wisdom than younger persons.
——19. One should avoid bringing displeasure to one’s ancestors.
——20. One need not conform to one’s family’s and the society’s expectations.
——21. One should have sufficient inner resources to resolve emotional problems.
——22. Parental love should be implicitly understood and not openly expressed.
——23. The worst thing one can do is to bring disgrace to one’s family reputation.
——24. One need not remain reserved and tranquil.
——25. The ability to control one’s emotions is a sign of strength.
——26. One should be humble and modest.
——27. Family’s reputation is not the primary social concern.
——28. One need not be able to resolve psychological problems on one’s own.
——29. Following familial and social expectations are important.
——30. One should not inconvenience others.
——31. Occupational failure does not bring shame to the family.
——32. One need not follow the role expectations (gender‚ family hierarchy) of one’s family.
——33. One should not make waves.
——34. Children need not take care of their parents when the parents become unable to take care of themselves.
——35. One need not control one’s expression of emotions.
——36. One’s family need not be the main source of trust and dependence.
Note. Permission to use the Asian Values Scale must be obtained from Bryan
S. K. Kim.
Source: Kim‚ B.‚ Atkinson‚ D. & Yang‚ P. (1999). The Asian Values Scale: Development‚ factor analysis‚ validation‚ and reliability. J Counsel Psychol‚ 46‚ Table 1‚ pp. 345‚ 346. Copyright # 1999 by the American Psychological Association. Adapted with permission.